Flanders Poppies

Flanders poppies (corn poppies – Papaver rhoeas) are blooming in my yard. For more than 10 years I have watched them moving through my neighborhood in Albuqueque. I first noticed them in my church parking lot and a vacant lot about 5 city blocks east of my home. They moved to the west, against the prevailing winds and now I have seen them miles to the west of where I first noticed them. They are pretty, they have historic significance (see the poem below), but they can be somewhat weedy. They are winter annuals, sprouting in the winter, blooming in the spring, shedding their seeds, and then dying by the heat of summer (here in Albuquerque).

These are the flowers written about during WWI by Canadian John McCrae –

In Flanders Fields
Lieutenant-Colonel John McCrae
Canadian physician in WWI

In Flanders fields the poppies blow
Between the crosses, row on row,
That mark our place; and in the sky
The larks, still bravely singing, fly
Scarce heard amid the guns below.

We are the Dead. Short days ago
We lived, felt dawn, saw sunset glow,
Loved and were loved, and now we lie
In Flanders fields.

Take up our quarrel with the foe:
To you from failing hands we throw
The torch; be yours to hold it high.
If ye break faith with us who die
We shall not sleep, though poppies grow
In Flanders fields.

Silverleaf nightshade – the beauty is a beast

Attractive flower of silverleaf nightshade
Solanum elaeagnifolium silverleaf nightshade flower

Silverleaf nightshade is a beautiful plant, but the beauty is a beast!  The silver leaves are attractive, but their blue flowers with prominent yellow stamens attract a lot of attention.

 

 

 

This plant’s attractive characteristics hide some unattractive features.  It is related to deadly nightshade and is itself listed among  plants toxic to both humans and livestock.  More than that, it is listed as a noxious weed in several states and acknowledged as a weed in most others.  It is, however, a relative of tomatoes, tomatoes, and chiles.  These are all members of the Nightshade family, Solanaceae, and most members of this family do contain toxic elements in some of the plant parts.

Spines on stems of silverleaf nightshade
Solanum elaeagnifolium silverleaf nightshade spines

If that was not enough it produces spines on most above ground parts of the plants.  While some plants produce more spines than others, and it has been reported that plants growing in humid climates produce few or no spines, for gardeners in the Southwest, this plant produces some spiny problems.

 

There are even spines on unopened flowers of silverleaf nightshade
Solanum elaeagnifolium silverleaf nightshade spines on unopened flowers

The unopened flower buds produce spines.

 

 

 

 

Spent flowers, leaves, stems, buds of silverleaf nightshade have spines
Solanum elaeagnifolium silverleaf nightshade spines on all parts

The spent flowers have spines. Spines can be found on leaves, buds, everywhere above ground!

 

 

 

 

There are spines on fruit of silverleaf nightshade
Solanum elaeagnifolium silverleaf nightshade spines on fruit

Even the fruit produce spines on their  sepals.

 

 

 

 

Clump of interconnected silverleaf nightshade plants
Solanum elaeagnifolium silverleaf nightshade cluster of interconnected plants

Silverleaf nightshade is a weed with a deep taproot that allows it to survive in very arid environments.  Even a small piece of root left in the soil will generate a new plant.  Plants in a clump are often attached to each other by underground stems, so that they can help support each other.  This makes them survivors, it also makes them weeds.

 

As weeds we try to remove them, but be careful, the spines easily break after piercing your skin and become difficult to remove.  These spines can sometimes even penetrate leather garden gloves!

So can there be anything good said about these plants?  Well, they are beautiful, but the beauty is a beast!  They are toxic, but like many toxic plants, the toxic principles can be curative when used properly.  They were used medicinally and as beneficial plants by native people.  They were even able able to use the ground, dried, fruit to curdle milk to make cheese.

Never the less, the beauty is a beast!

Golden Currants consistent production even in drought

Ribes aureum – Golden currant fruit ready for harvest

Golden Currants, Ribes aureum, are a reliable, consistent producer in my garden.  The black berries must be picked individually by hand, but make a delicious jam or preserves.  In this drought year when the garden has received only about 2 inches of precipitation since October, none from October to January and none in April, it still made a crop.  I did irrigate a few times, but only minimally.

Ribes aureum – Golden currant fruit many ready for harvest even after over 2 gallons of berries harvested

Even after harvesting over 2 gallons from a few plants, there is much more to harvest.

Birds and a berry moth (their larvae) are the primary problems, but I still have a bountiful harvest of tasty berries.

 

 

Golden Currant blossoms
Ribes aureum flowers

Fragrant golden flowers followed by abundant harvest, even in times of drought, make these reliable producers a good choice for gardens in New Mexico.

Black currents fruit of the Golden Currant - Ribes aureum
Ribes aureum – Golden Currant fruit ready to harvest

Photos

How to tell if seed are good

I often have seed left from previous years and wonder if they are viable.  Sometimes my plants will surprise me with seeds, but these seed often are not viable and do not grow.  Testing the ability of these seeds to germinate saves time and space in my garden.  Recently my gerbera daisy made seeds, so I tested them.  I also found some one-year old liatris seeds that I decided to test.

I put the seeds into sealable plastic bags on moistened paper towels, each type in separate bags:

Gerbera seed test

Liatris seed test

 

After a couple of weeks the liatris seed were sprouting, but there was no sign of growth in the gerbera seeds:

Liatris seedings closeup

I carefully removed the sprouted liatris seedlings from the moist paper towel and placed them into pots of potting soil:

Liatris seedlings and forceps ready for planting

Liatris seedling planted in potting soil

They are growing well and I will transplant them to the garden later in the spring, or give some to friends.